Wrong parts of speech (e.g., a noun has been mistaken for an adjective, etc.)

Mistake an adjective for a noun

In examples 1 and 2, the adjective “geographic” and the adjective phrase “above mentioned” are wrongly used as a noun/ noun phrase.
 

 

WRONG
RIGHT

1.

What I see from the two harbor cities is that both of them tried to make good use of the natural geographic (the harbor) to enhance the quality of life of that area.

What I see from the two harbor cities is that both of them tried to make good use of the natural geography (the harbor) to enhance the quality of life of that area.

2.

In response to the question of whether the urban
development of the Hong Kong harbour
is satisfactory or not, obviously the answer is dissatisfactory, and some of the reasons are clearly stated in the above mentioned.

In response to the question of whether the urban development of the Hong Kong harbour is satisfactory or not, obviously the answer is dissatisfactory, and some of the reasons are clearly stated in the above mentioned paragraphs.

 

Mistake a noun for an adjective

In example 3, an adjective (i.e. “economic”) is required, not a noun (i.e. “economy”).
 
In example 4, the noun “Australia” is misused instead of its adjective form “Australian”.
 
Similarly, in examples 5-7, the nouns (i.e. “unsafety”, “success” and “nature”) are mistaken as adjectives.
 
In example 8, “sophisticate” is a noun. To convey the meaning of “highly developed”, the writer should use the adjective “sophisticated”. 
 
WRONG
RIGHT

3.

A huge economy profit accelerates the development of Hong Kong.

A huge economic profit accelerates the development of Hong Kong.

4.

By contrast, the Australia government has executed a plan to minimize any impact to and protect heritage […]

By contrast, the Australian government has executed a plan to minimize any impact to and protect heritage […]

5.

Also, maritime traffic becomes unsafety and traffic congestion is aggravated.

Also, maritime traffic becomes unsafe and traffic congestion is aggravated.

6.

This harbour is the reason why Hong Kong can be success in recent decades.

The harbour is the reason why Hong Kong can be successful in recent decades. 

7.

Reclamation makes the Hong Kong harbour narrower and this causes the destruction of the nature shape of the harbour.

Reclamation makes the Hong Kong harbour narrower and this causes the destruction of the natural shape of the harbour.

8.

In the contrary, today’s Singapore harbour has a sophisticate urban design which can handle much more than international freighters because it has developed its waterfront into a travel destination for tourists from around the world.

In the contrary, today’s Singapore harbour has a sophisticated urban design which can handle much more than international freighters because it has developed its waterfront into a travel destination for tourists from around the world.

 

Mistake a verb for a noun

In examples 9 and 10, the verb “develop” is misused when the noun “development” is required.
 
In example 11, the verb “dump” is misused when a noun is needed. 
 
In example 12, the verb “able” is misused when the noun “ability” is needed. 
 
In example 13, the verb “promote” is being confused with the noun “promotion”.
 

 

WRONG
RIGHT

9.

But when land reclamation is no longer an option, the main development is shifting to other islands that are still available for develop.

But when land reclamation is no longer an option, the main development is shifting to other islands that are still available for development.

10.

After one hundred years develop, Hong Kong has eventually become a financial centre.

After one hundred years of development, Hong Kong has eventually become a financial centre.

11.

Water pollution is caused by the leakage of oil from
ships and the dump of rubbish.

Water pollution is caused by the leakage of oil from ships and the disposal of rubbish.

12.

I also have able to work under pressure.

I also have the ability to work under pressure.

13.

I have designed souvenirs such as posters and trophies related to promote environmental protection.

I have designed souvenirs such as posters and trophies related to the promotion of environmental protection. 

 

Mistake a noun for a verb

In example 14, the noun “loss” is mistaken for the verb “lost”. 
 
WRONG
RIGHT

14.

The harbour is loss its characteristics.

The harbour has lost its characteristics.

 

Mistake an adverb for an adjective

In example 15, the adverb “previously” is wrongly used when an adjective is required (i.e. “previous”). 
 
WRONG
RIGHT

15.

Due to the massive reclamation projects previously, an unfavorable environment for navigation and other water activities has been created.

Due to the previous massive reclamation projects, an unfavorable environment for navigation and other water activities has been created.

 

Mistake an adverb for a noun

In example 16, “worldwide” is misused as a noun preceded by the preposition “from”. If we delete the preposition “from”, “worldwide” is used correctly as an adverb. 
 
WRONG
RIGHT

16.

The harbour attracts thousands of tourists from
worldwide yearly and it also plays an important role in Hong Kong’s economy, tourism, culture and people’s collective memories.

The harbour attracts thousands of tourists ø worldwide yearly and it also plays an important role in Hong Kong’s economy, tourism, culture and people’s collective memories.

Lack VS. A/ The lack of

“Lack” is a verb and “lack of something” is a complex noun phrase.
 
In example 17, the verb “lack” should be followed by a noun phrase as an object. A prepositional phrase “of facilities […]” can never be an object. One alternative solution could be to use the noun phrase “lack of” by saying “there is a lack of […]”.
 
WRONG
RIGHT

17.

Poor urban planning impedes the development of Hong Kong. The city lacks of facilities like parks, recreation areas and waterfront promenades to name but a few.

Poor urban planning impedes the development of Hong Kong. The city lacks ø facilities like parks, recreation areas and waterfront promenades to name but a few.

 

Poor urban planning impedes the development of Hong Kong. There is a lack of facilities like parks, recreation areas and waterfront promenades in the city, to name but a few.

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